Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Anne Wittke, Eckhart Olshausen and Richard Szydlak
This new atlas of the ancient world illustrates the political, economic, social and cultural developments in the ancient Near East, the Mediterranean world, the Byzantine Empire, the Islamic world and the Holy Roman Empire from the 3rd millennium BC until the 15th century AD.

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The growth of Christian congregations, 1st-4th cents. AD

(1,847 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
I. Mission From its very earliest beginnings, Christianity was a missionary religion, in accordance with the ‘Great Commission’ of the New Testament (Mt 28: 18–20; Mk 16: 15f.; Jo 20: 21). Paul already planned to expand his missionary activities to Spain (Rom 11,25f.). In the mid 40s, the so-called Convention of the Apostles took place at Jerusalem, and from it came important stimuli for the sending out of missionaries, including Paul (Acts 15; Gal 2: 1–10). However, this does not mean that the wo…

The Hallstatt Culture (c. 800-450 BC)

(2,003 words)

Author(s): Hoppe, T.
At the beginning of the first millennium, vast parts of Europe were characterized by the Late Bronze Age urnfield culture. From it sprang the cultures of the Iron Age, as reflected in the chronological terminology. The Early Iron Age culture, which left a formative imprint on central Europe, is generally divided into two time horizons. Stages Ha A and B, which were still Late Bronze Age, were followed by the Early (stage Ha C; 8th to 7th cents. BC) and the Late Hallstatt cultures (Ha D; 7th to 5…

The Hellenistic kingdoms of Indo-Bactria in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Wiesehöfer, J.
The region of Bactria in north-eastern Iran, an old cultural centre of Iranian population with an urban culture that developed at an early stage, was richly endowed by nature (grain, livestock, resources, e.g. gold). Its capital, Bactra, lay on what later became the Silk Road. Another long-distance trade route followed the course of the Oxus and its tributary the Bactrus west to the Caspian Sea. To the south, yet another route — which, despite the difficult passes, had been in use since the 4th …

The Hellenistic world in the 2nd cent. BC

(1,658 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
The 2nd cent. BC was the period during which the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean came under Roman rule. This came about not so much through a policy of aggression on Rome’s part (in fact, the Romans long sought to avoid involvement in the east, not least because of their commitments in the west, e.g. Punic Wars) as in consequence of the self-seeking prestige politics typically pursued, as throughout the preceding Hellenistic period, by the Hellenistic monarchs and the Greek cities and leagues. Ultimately, Rome established a presence in the Balkans and Asia Minor …

The Hellenistic world in the 3rd cent. BC

(1,538 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
I. Sources and the current state of research The source material on the development and formation of the Hellenistic states of the 3rd century is particularly sketchy for the period from the death of Pyrrhus of Epirus (319/18–272 BC), whose life is included in Plutarch’s collection of biographies, and 220 BC, the starting-point of Polybius’ Histories. All that has survived is some disconnected remarks by various ancient writers, such as the Latin excerpts made by Justin in the 4th cent. AD from a history written in the first cent. AD. There are also…

The Hittite Empire, ‘Ḫattusa’, in the 13th cent. BC

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
There is demonstrable proof that as early as the 3rd millennium BC, Hittites were living in the area bordering on the inside of the arc formed by the river Halys. From the end of the 18th cent. BC onwards, they succeeded in creating a territorial state which was already characterized by the specifically Hittite organization of government, in which the king and his clan shared an equal degree of responsibility. The Hittite Empire, particularly the so-called Great Empire (14th/13th cents.), repres…

The Iberian Peninsula and its contacts in the Late Bronze Age and in the Early Iron Age (c. 13th to 7th/6th cents. BC)

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
As reflected in Greek myth (the Pillars of Hercules), the cultures in the southwest and along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula and its 200 km wide hinterland strip had been trading partners of the contemporaneous high civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean region from the Final Bronze Age. Nevertheless their cultures and the prehistoric cultures of the central plateau and the north-west have only in recent times been accorded appropriate interest in research. The choice of pe…

The imperium Romanum in the reign of Septimius Severus (AD 193–211)

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
As a ruler, Septimius Severus was profoundly shaped by his long struggle to gain the throne. Almost four years elapsed from his acclamation as emperor by the Pannonian legions at Carnuntum (where he had resided as legatus Augusti pro praetore of Pannonia superior since 191) in April 193 until his acceptance across the whole empire following his victory over Clodius Albinus at Lugdunum on 19 February 197. The lessons learned during this period made themselves felt in many of his governmental measures. We should always be on our guard …

The kingdoms of the Diadochi (c. 303 BC)

(1,570 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
At his sudden death in 323 BC, Alexander the Great left his empire with no provision for succession. The period leading up to the emergence of the Hellenistic states in the 3rd cent. (272) was thus characterized by many disputes among his ‘successors’ ( diadochoi), his closest companions and officers, who held important offices or received or already held satrapies. The emergence of the kingdoms of the Diadochi can be roughly divided into two phases: a) the four Wars of the Diadochi up to the death of Antigonus Monophthalmus (who had primarily fought to …

The La Tène Culture (c. 450 BC – c. AD 1)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Hoppe, T.
In the 5th cent. BC, the cultural structure of the Hallstatt period in eastern France and southwest Germany underwent a fundamental change. The majority of the Hallstatt settlement centres, the so-called princely residences, lost their status, being either destroyed or deserted, while formerly subordinate areas north of the previous centres suddenly rose to prominence: the regions along the Marne and the middle reaches of the Rhine, along with Bohemia. Splendid warrior graves, frequently contain…

The limites in Britannia, Germania and Raetia

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
In principle, the frontiers of Roman influence were as flexible as any particular neighbour permitted. Hence, the Roman Republic never had any external borders fixed by military installations. During the Principate, as the standing professional army developed, so also did an Empire-wide frontier control system. But this system, too, varied according to geographical, ethnic and political conditions. Some examples illustrate its diversity: • the Vallum Hadriani (Hadrian’s Wall) in Britannia, a defensive rampart and wall with military road (Stanegate) running al…

The Luwian-aramaic principalities c. 900 BC

(1,488 words)

Author(s): Novák, M.
I. Antecedents and genesis The system of Late Bronze Age states that had developed over centuries had collapsed in the 12th cent. BC. Numerous political units like the Great Hittite Empire, the New Kingdom in Egypt and the Middle Babylonian Empire failed to survive the turmoil. Small principalities, too, lost large parts of their territories or disappeared completely. Only Assyria managed to hold on to its status as a great power until the early 11th cent. Then, towards the end of the Middle Assyria…

The organization of the Christian church after the Synod of Chalcedon (AD 451)

(1,697 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
In the 2nd cent., the Christian congregations had moved from collegial leadership by the presbyters – modelled on the structure of authority in the Jewish diaspora communities – to the sole authority of one representative of the congregation, a bishop, who held office by virtue of his auctoritas and dignitas in succession to the Apostles. His sphere of authority usually included a city and the villages and individual farmsteads in its territorium. The first ecumenical synod, at Nicaea (19 June – c. 25 August 325) already acknowledged what had developed since the end of the D…

The ‘Palmyrene Empire’ (AD 250–272)

(1,998 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
The Greeks adopted an Egyptian term denoting a depression with fertile soil in the desert, calling it an oasis. Palmyra was such an Oasis. It lies in the heart of the so-called Fertile Crescent (a term coined by the Orientalist James Henry Breasted, 1865–1935), the zone of steppe in what is now Jordan, Israel, the Lebanon, Syria and Iraq, surrounded by highlands (Libanus, Antilibanus, Antitaurus, Zagrus) and suitable for rain-fed agriculture (i.e. without artificial irrigation). This zone forms a semicircular fringe around the northern …

The Peloponnesian War (431– 404 BC)

(1,634 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
The theme of the map is ‘the war between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians’ (Thuc. 1,1,1) which was also called ‘the Peloponnesian War’ in subsequent ancient writings (Ephorus, the Hellenistic chronographers, Diod. Sic. 12,37,2 etc.; Cic. Rep. 3,44). Among scholars this term is also used for the so-called First Peloponnesian War (460/58/57–446), which means that this one would have to be termed the Second Peloponnesian War. It covers the military conflict between Athens and its Delian League …

The Pergamene kingdom of the Attalids (241 to c. 185 BC)

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Strobel, K. | Wittke, A.-M.
The terms ‘Pergamene Kingdom’ and ‘Attalid Kingdom’ denote a region of Asia Minor centred upon the fortified city of Pergamum. Growing steadily from 281 BC, its territory fluctuated considerably in the course of the 2nd cent. Initially a dynastic structure (Philetaerus, Eumenes I) tolerated by the Seleucids, it became a kingdom proper (maps A and B) around 238 BC when Attalus I accepted the title of king (regnal period 241-197). At its period of greatest extent under Eumenes II (197-159 BC, maps C and D) it reached from Thrace to the Taurus Mountains. Its early support of Rome …

The Persian Wars (c. 500–478/449 BC)

(1,385 words)

Author(s): Eder, W. | Wittke, A.-M.
‘Persian Wars’ is a modern umbrella term denoting the attacks by the Achaemenid kings Darius I (522–486 BC) and Xerxes I (486–465 BC) on Greece in the period between the Ionian Revolt ( c. 500–494 BC) and the middle of the 5th cent. The expansion of Persian rule to the European continent (from 513/12 BC) and the concomitant Achaemenid claim to world dominion had put an end to the hitherto peaceful nature of Greco-Persian contacts. The defence of ‘Greek freedom’ against the ‘barbarians’, which was launched by the Ionian Revolt, …

The Phoenician and West Phoenician/Carthaginian world in the western Mediterranean area (9th–2nd cents. BC)

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Niemeyer, H.G. | Sommer, M.
Not only does the map cover a lengthy period (9th-2nd cents. BC), but it also brings together two separate phases of Phoenician presence in the western Mediterranean. Firstly, there is the period of early Phoenician settlements, trading posts and agrarian communities initiated and controlled by the Levantine mother-cities, notably Tyre (9th-7th/6th cents.). Secondly, what is conventionally referred to as Punic or Carthaginian foundations, are all the Western Phoenician settlements on the African…

The provinces of the Imperium Romanum from Augustus to Septimius Severus (27 BC to AD 211)

(1,639 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
At the Senate sitting of 13 January 27 BC, the future Augustus (he received this honorific title at the Senate sitting three days later) returned to the Senate and people of Rome all the extraordinary powers he had arrogated or been assigned during the preceding period of civil war. However, the Senate pressed him to reassume at least some of the imperial administration, which he finally consented to do (Cass. Dio 53,12,5–7; 53,13,1; Str. 17,3,25; Suet. Aug. 28; 47). On the basis of an imperium proconsulare, then, he took over the administration of the following nine provinces: 1. Cyprus, a…

The provincial administration of the Roman Empire in the 4th cent. AD

(1,243 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
The provincial administration of the Roman Empire in the 4th cent. AD The entire Roman Empire was administratively reshaped under the rule of the emperors Diocletian (284–305) and Constantine I (306–337) and their successors. One of the reforms implemented by these emperors concerned the subdivision of the civil administration of the Empire into praefecturae under praefecti praetorio, dioeceses under vicarii and provinciae under praesides. The division of the Empire into dioeceses began under Diocletian; the praefecturae were a creation of Constantine’s. He removed the…
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